Body fluids and circulation

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1.0 Circulatory system

It is the movement of body fluids inside the body of animals so as to transport materials from the region of the formation to the region of utilization or disposal.
A circulatory system is a complex of structures involved in the flow of body fluids of an organism so as to accomplish transport of materials

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Circulation of body fluids can be of the following types

  1. Intracellular circulation :
    It occurs inside the individual cells through Cyclosis or cytoplasmic streaming. Examples: Paramecium, Amoeba.
  2. Extracellular circulation : In multi-cellular animals, the living cells are bathed in an intercellular or extracellular fluid which circulates in the body for transport of materials.
  3. extracellular circulation can be
    1. Extra-organismic circulation: Outside water circulates in the body of an organism
    2. Intra-organismic circulation: It involves circulation of body fluid
      1. Parenchymal circulation
        In flatworms, fluid-filled spaces present in parenchyma tissue between the body wall and internal organs are used in the distribution of substances.
      2. Coelomic Circulation
        Coelomic fluid is employed in the transport of substances,Pseudocelom is used for this purpose in roundworms. Hemocoel does so in arthropods
      3. Blood vascular system
        It contains blood and a pumping structure ( heart) for circulation of materials inside the body. Lymphatic system accompanies blood vascular system.

      1.01 Functions of circulatory system

      1. Transport of nutrients
      2. Transport of waste products.
      3. Transport of respiratory gases
      4. Transport of metabolic intermediates like lactic acid from muscles to liver
      5. Transport of hormones.
      6. Regulation of pH by means of a buffer.
      7. Regulation of temperature.
      8. Distribution of water.
      9. Support or turgidity of certain organs like penis and nipples
      10. Prevention of diseases by means of antibodies and antitoxin present in it
      11. Disposal of cell wreckage.
      12. Homeostatis or providing a stable internal environment for cells
      13. Determination of pigmentation in the case of blood vascular system.
      14. Plugging the area of injury.
      15. As connective tissue



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