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International initiative for mitigating global change

  1. Montreal Protocol ( 16 September 1987): 27 industrialized countries agreed to limit production of chlorofluorocarbons to half the level of 1986.
  2. Helsinki Declaration ( May 1989): Montreal Protection was ratified by 82 nations at Helsinki. They pledge to phase out CFC by the year 2000.
  3. In June 1990, 93 nations amended Montreal Protocol and Helsinki Declaration. They agreed to phase out CFC’s till date 175 nations have signed it.
  4. Intergovernmental Panel on climatic change ( IPCC, 1988 )
    Prepared world climatic programme (wcp)
  5. Convention on climate change (CCC) : Under UN framework in 1991.
  6. Earth Summit (United Nation Conference on Environment and Development, 1992).
    It was held in Rio-de-Janeiro ( Brazil) and adopted the recommendations of CC for reducing greenhouse gases. The recommendations were signed by 154 nations. They pledged to maintain emission of greenhouse gases at 1990 level.
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  1. Kyoto Protocol ( Dec 1997)
    An international conference held in Kyoto, Japan obtained commitments from different countries for reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions at a level of 5% below 1990 level by 2008 – 2012.
  2. World Summit for sustainable development (2002)
    The Summit was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, for discussing ways and means to sustain development without depletion of biodiversity.
  3. U.N. Convention on climatic change (CCC, 2004)
    The meeting was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, for preparing a strategy to reduce global warming.
  4. Bali conference (2007) : It has concentrated on ways and means to check global warming.
  5. Copenhagen conference (2009): Participating countries have agreed to voluntarily reduce CO2 emissions.
  6. UN climate change conference (CCC, 2011): It was held in Durban, South Africa.


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