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Environmental issues

Biology Index

Degradation natural resources by improper resource utilization and maintenance.

Degradation of natural resources not only occurs due to over-exploitation and action of pollutants but also due to too improper utilization practices.

  1. Soil erosion
    It is the removal of topsoil occurs when the plant cover is removed. The agencies that cause soil erosion are water and wind. Plants cover is removed due to deforestation, overgrazing, leaving tilled loose soil for a few days un-irrigated and unseeded. Since the onlytopsoil is fertile soil erosion reduces the productivity of the land. The water eroded soil passes into rivers and reservoirs.
    It raises river bed causing flood and storage capacity of reservoirs also reduces. Water becomes muddy killing all types of aquatic life.
  2. Desertification
    It occurs in the plain where excessive grazing and trees fallingleave the land barren. In the dry season, such exposed is eroded by wind. As fine soil particles are taken away by wind, heavy sand particles are left. They also show creepy. The area becomes arid and sandy.

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  1. Waterlogging
    It is the presence of water more than field capacity of the soil.
    waterlogging occurs due to
    1. Seepage from irrigation channels.
    2. Excessive irrigation.
    3. The absence of underground drainage. Waterlogging drives out soil air. Anaerobic conditions produce toxins, prevent root growth and kill the plants.
  2. Soil salinity
    Poorly drained soil in semi-arid areas and soil irrigated by brackish water turn saline. Evaporation of water from the surface draws more and more water from below. As soil water contains salts. Salts are left over the surface while the water evaporates.

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