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Environmental issues

Biology Index

17.0 Forest and wildlife laws

  1. Forest acts, 1927
    1. Establishment and management of three types of forests – village forest, reserved forest,and protected forests.
    2. Protection of non-governmental forests and forest land against over-exploitation.
    3. Control of movement of forest products.
    4. Control of grazing.
  2. Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, Amended 1988.
  3. No forest land can be de-reserved and diverted to non-forest purposes without the approval of central government. A diversion when permitted would be accompanied by compensatory afforestation, in some cases, twice the forest area lost. Six regional offices have been set up to monitor enforcement of Act – Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhubhaneshwar, Lucknow, Shillong and Chandigarh.

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  1. Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, Amended 1991
    1. The act restricts and prohibits hunting of the animal.
    2. Protection of certain plants from excessive exploitation.
    3. Setting up and managing national parks and sanctuaries.
    4. Creation of zoo authority for controlling of zoos and captive breeding.
    5. Control trade in wildlife, wildlife products.
    6. Encouraging and assisting the formation of wildlife societies.
  2. National Forest policy (1988) It aims at increasing cover of forest in plains and hills so that optimum of 33% forest cover is achieved in plains and 67% in hills.
    Other aims are:
    1. Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and restoration of ecological balance.
    2. Check on soil erosion and denudation of catchment areas.
    3. Checking on the spread of sand dunes.
    4. Increase in forest tree cover through massive afforestation and social forestry programmes.
    5. Steps to create massive people’s movement of afforestation, management,and protection of forests. Already about 17.33 million hectares of degraded and protected by 84632 Joint Forest Management Committees.

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