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Environmental issues


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Water pollution

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sources of water pollution

  1. Domestic sewage
    • Liquid waste from domestic activities such as kitchen, toilet and households, wastewater.
    • Domestic effluents carry organic wastes which are biodegradable.
  2. Industrial wastewater
    • The major sources of water pollution come from wastes from industries such as paper mills, leather tanneries, textile and jute mills, chemical and petroleum industries.
    • Most of the coastal water is threatened by pollution from the effluents of coastal prawn cultures farm and fish processing industries.
    • Power plants and nuclear power stations are the mainsources of thermal pollution of water. In these plants, water is used for cooling and it becomes hot. The release of hot wastewater, having 8 to 10°C higher temperature than intake water, causes thermal pollution in the water body.
  3. Agricultural sources
    • Modern agricultural techniques require the use of millions of tones of artificial fertilizers, pesticides, insecticide for obtaining better yield. These get mixed with groundwater, lakes etc and produce several health hazards.
  4. Oil Spills
    • Oil spills are the accidental discharge of petroleum in oceans or estuaries.
    • Offshore oil mining, capsized oil tankers add to oil pollution of the marine ecosystem.
    • It forms a thick layer called slick, which floats on the surface of the sea and affect oceanic ecosystem as they are extremely harmful to coral reefs.


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