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QUESTION    2
Q1) The production of gametes by the parents, formation of zygotes, the F1 and F2 plants, can be understood from a diagram called ... [ NEET 2021]

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Different combinations of gametes are theoretically represented in a square tabular form known as ‘Punnett Square’.
Reference NCERT 12th Biology text book, Page 93, summary
Answer : (d)



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Inheritance and variation

Inheritance and variation are fundamental concepts in biology that play a critical role in understanding the diversity of life on Earth. These concepts are essential for NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) aspirants as they form the basis for questions related to genetics, evolution, and biodiversity.
Inheritance refers to the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next. It involves the passing on of traits, such as physical and behavioral characteristics, from parents to offspring. Inheritance is controlled by genes, which are located on chromosomes. Genes are composed of DNA and contain the instructions for the production of proteins, which are responsible for the expression of traits.
Inheritance occurs through two main mechanisms: sexual and asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of gametes from two parents, resulting in offspring with a unique combination of genes. Asexual reproduction, on the other hand, involves the production of offspring from a single parent, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.
Variation refers to the differences that exist between individuals of the same species. This variation can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variation is the result of differences in genes and their expression. Environmental variation, on the other hand, is the result of differences in the environment, such as temperature, light, and nutrition.
Variation is important because it provides the raw material for natural selection, which is the process by which species evolve over time. Individuals with traits that are advantageous in their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on their advantageous traits to their offspring. Over time, this can result in the evolution of new species.
The study of inheritance and variation has many practical applications, including the development of new medicines, the improvement of agricultural crops, and the preservation of endangered species. By understanding the principles of inheritance and variation, scientists can better predict the outcome of genetic crosses and develop new strategies for the management of genetic diversity. In conclusion, inheritance and variation are fundamental concepts in biology that are essential for NEET aspirants. These concepts are central to our understanding of genetics, evolution, and biodiversity. By studying inheritance and variation, we can gain insights into the mechanisms that underlie the diversity of life on Earth and develop new strategies for the management of genetic diversity.